Alzheimer’s disease is a proteinopathy that is linked to the deposition of abnormal proteins: The beta-amyloid protein that accumulates in the plaques outside the neuron and the hyperphosphorylated Tau protein that accumulates inside the neuron, creating neurofibrillary degeneration.
These two lesions will progressively invade a large part of the brain. Little by little symptoms will appear worsening with time, reducing and then annihilating the autonomy of the patient.
We know better and better the cascade of pathological phenomena that leads to the development of lesions and symptoms. However, the root cause remains unknown. In a small number of cases a genetic abnormality responsible for the accumulation of the beta-amyloid protein is the cause.
In the vast majority of cases we retain that certain risk factors foster its onset. For some of the risk factors, we cannot do anything: aging, the female sex and the presence of APOE 4. However, for other risk factors, preventive action is possible: vascular risks, low education level, low cognitive activity, physical and social activity, inadequate nutrition.